Programming Interface
WEBDRIVER(3caius)

NAME

WebDriver - automate browser interaction with Selenium WebDriver

EXAMPLE

package require WebDriver

set caps [WebDriver::Capabilities #auto -browser_name firefox]
set session [WebDriver::Session #auto \
    http://127.0.0.1:4444/wd/hub \
    [namespace which $caps] \
]

$session set_logging_enabled true

set window [$session active_window]
$window maximize

$window set_url http://www.example.com

set element [$window element by_id username]

$element click
$element clear
$element send_keys "jonathan"

itcl::delete object $element
itcl::delete object $session

DESCRIPTION

The WebDriver module implements the Selenium WebDriver protocol. In order to execute WebDriver tests, you will also need a copy of Selenium Server, which you can download from http://seleniumhq.org.

Server and test scripts can run on different systems as the server is controlled via remote procedure calls over a TCP connection. It is the server's responsibility to launch a browser instance and to forward the commands it receives from a test script.

API

namespace WebDriver

proc sessions url
Connects to Selenium Server at the given URL and returns a list of WebDriver::Session objects, one for each active session.

itcl::class WebDriver::Session

constructor url desired_capabilities ?required_capabilities?

Establish a connection to Selenium Server at the given URL and request a session supporting the specified capabilities.

The desired_capabilities parameter is a reference to a WebDriver::Capabilities object. Desired means in this context that the requested session properties are not mandatory for test execution.

The required_capablities parameter is a reference to a WebDriver::RequiredCapabilities object. Required means in this context that the requested session properties are mandatory for test execution. If they cannot be full-filled an exception is thrown.

method active_window

Return a reference to the active browser window represented by a WebDriver::Window object. The window reference is managed by the session and must not be deleted.

Throws a WebDriver::NoSuchWindowError error, if the window has been closed.

method capabilities

Query the actual session capabilities. Returns a reference to a WebDriver::Capabilities object.

method get_log type

Retreive log items of the given type (see also method log_types) from the server. Returns a list of raw log items.

method logging_enabled

Return a boolean value indicating whether logging has been enabled on the session.

method log_types

Return a list of log types available on the server.

method set_logging_enabled bool

Enable logging on the session object. When this is set to true all actions within the session will be logged to stdout.

method set_async_script_timeout ms

Set the time in milliseconds after which an asynchronously executed script is considered as having timed out.

method set_implicit_wait_timeout ms

Set the time in milliseconds that the driver should wait on elements to appear. The default is not to wait at all.

method set_page_load_timeout ms

Set the time in milliseconds after which a page load is considered as having timed out.

method windows

Return a list of all windows in the current session. A window in the background can be activated by calling its focus method. The window references are managed by the session and must not be deleted.

itcl::class WebDriver::Window

constructor

Windows are always the property of a session object and should be retrieved with Session methods active_window and windows. There is absolutely no point in constructing a window manually.

method accept_alert

Accept the currently displayed alert dialog. Usually, this is equivalent to clicking on the "OK" button in the dialog.

Throws a WebDriver::NoAlertOpenError if no alert is being displayed.

method active_element

Return a WebDriver::WebElement reference to the page element that currently has the focus.

method alert_send_text text

Send text as keystrokes to the currently displayed JavaScript dialog.

Throws a WebDriver::NoAlertOpenError if no alert is being displayed.

method alert_text

Get the text of the currently displayed JavaScript alert(), confirm(), or prompt() dialog.

Throws a WebDriver::NoAlertOpenError if no alert is being displayed.

method back

Navigate backwards in the history.

method button_down ?button?

Press a mouse button, where button can be one of left, middle or right. If button is not specified, the left button will be pressed. If you just want to click on an element, retrieve the element first and use its click method instead.

method button_up ?button?

Releases a mouse button that was previously pressed. button can be one of left, middle or right. If button is not specified, the left button is assumed.

method close

Close the window. Note that you are not allowed to close the last remaining window in a session. If you try to do so a WebDriver::CloseSessionWindowError will be thrown.

method cookies

Return a list of all cookies for the active domain in form of WebDriver::Cookie object references. The cookies are a property of the Window object and must not be deleted.

method delete_cookie name

Delete the cookie with the given name.

method dismiss_alert

Dismiss the currently displayed alert dialog. For confirm() and prompt() dialogs, this is equivalent to clicking the "Cancel" button. For alert() dialogs, this is equivalent to clicking the "OK" button.

Throws a WebDriver::NoAlertOpenError if no alert is being displayed.

method doubleclick

Send a double click event.

method element strategy locator

Locate and return a reference to an element on the page in form of a WebDriver::WebElement instance. The strategy can be one of

* by_class_name,
* by_css_selector,
* by_id,
* by_name,
* by_link_text,
* by_partial_link_text,
* by_tag_name,
* by_xpath

and the locator would be the corresponding specifier. This method only ever returns one element (the first one that matches). Element references obtained by this method must be explicitly deleted when not used anymore.

Throws a WebDriver::NoSuchElementError if the element cannot be found and a WebDriver::XPathLookupError if an invalid expression was supplied.

method elements strategy locator

Works exactly as method element above but, as the name suggests, will return a list of all elements that match the given locator. Element references obtained by this method must be explicitly deleted when not used anymore.

May return an empty list. Throws a WebDriver::XPathLookupError if an invalid expression was supplied.

method execute script ?arg arg ...?

Inject a piece of JavaScript into the page and execute it. Any additional arguments passed along will be accessible from an array arguments inside the script.

Throws a WebDriver::StaleElementReferenceError if one of the script arguments is a WebElement that is not attached to the page's DOM or a WebDriver::JavaScriptError if the injected script throws an Error.

method execute_async ?-joinable? ?-result varname element? ?-error varname element? script

Inject a piece of JavaScript into the page and execute it asynchronously. Returns the id of the thread which is handling the script execution. If the -joinable flag is set, the thread can be waited on with thread::join. The -result parameter specifies the name of a thread shared variable, as described in tsv(3tcl), under which to store the script result. In the same way an error variable can be specified, which will hold information about any error that occurred during script execution.

This method is processed in a separate thread. If an error occurrs during script execution, the thread shared variable specified via the -error parameter will contain a description of the error.

method focus

Activate the window and bring it to the foreground.

method forward

Navigate forward in the history.

method maximize

Maximize the window.

method move_to xoffset yoffset

Move the mouse relative to the current cursor position. To move the mouse to a specific element instead, first retrieve the element, then use the element's own move_to method.

method name

Return the name of the window.

method orientation

Return the current orientation (must be supported by the driver!) as a string (either "landscape" or "portrait"). If you get an exception, your driver probably doesn't support handling the screen orientation.

method page_source

Return the full source of the current page.

method page_title

Return the current page's title.

method position

Return the current position of the window as a Tcl list of format {x y}.

method refresh

Reload the current page.

method screenshot ?-decode?

Return a screenshot of the page in PNG format. If the -decode parameter is given, the return value is the raw PNG, otherwise the image is Base64-encoded.

method select_frame ?id?

Select a frame inside the window by its id, where id is either the literal id of the frame or a reference to a WebDriver::WebElement object identifying the frame. If id is not specified, Selenium Server will select the default content of the page.

method session

Return a reference to the session that the window is a part of.

method set_cookie ?-path string? ?-domain string? ?-secure? ?-http_only? ?-expiry timestamp? name

Set a cookie for the active domain or the domain specified via the -domain parameter. The -expiry of the cookie must be a Unix timestamp indicating the time of expiry as seconds since midnight Jan 1, 1970 UTC.

Throws a WebDriver::InvalidCookieDomainError if the cookie domain is not visible from the current page or a WebDriver::UnableToSetCookieError if trying to set a cookie on a page that doesn't support cookies.

method set_orientation orientation

Set the screen orientation (must be supported by the driver!). orientation is one of the strings "portrait" or "landscape".

method set_position x y

Move the window so that the upper left corner is positioned at pixel coordinates x and y on the desktop.

method set_size width height

Resize the window to the given dimensions.

method set_url url

Load the given URL.

method size

Return the size of the window as a Tcl list of the format {width height}.

method url

Return the currently loaded URL.

itcl::class WebDriver::WebElement

constructor

WebElement instances are obtained by calling the element or elements methods on a WebDriver::Window object. Elements cannot be injected into the page (you can of course inject JavaScript to do something like that). Thus there is no point in constructing a WebElement manually.

method attribute name

Return the value of the attribute with the given name.

method clear

Clear a textarea or an input element's value.

Throws a WebDriver::StaleElementReferenceError if the element is no longer attached to the page's DOM, a WebDriver::ElementNotVisibleError if the element is not visible on the page or a WebDriver::InvalidElementStateError if the referenced element is disabled.

method click

Click on the element.

Throws a WebDriver::StaleElementReferenceError if the element is no longer attached to the page's DOM or a WebDriver::ElementNotVisibleError if the element is not visible on the page.

method css_property name

Return the value of the CSS property name.

method descendant strategy locator

Works analogously to Window::element, but only searches the element tree below the current element.

Throws a WebDriver::NoSuchElementError if the element cannot be found and a WebDriver::XPathLookupError if an invalid expression was supplied.

method descendants strategy locator

Works analogously to Window::elements, but only searches the element tree below the current element.

May return an empty list. Throws a WebDriver::XPathLookupError if an invalid expression was supplied.

method displayed

Determine if the element is currently displayed.

method enabled

Check whether the element is currently enabled.

method equals other

Check if this WebElement references the same page object as other.

method location

Return the element's location on the page as a Tcl list of format {x y}. The point {0 0} refers to the top left corner of the canvas.

method move_to ?xoffset? ?yoffset?

From the top left corner of the element, move the mouse to the specified offset. If no offset is given, the mouse is located at the center of the element.

method selected

Determine if an option element, or an input element of type checkbox or radiobutton is currently selected.

method send_keys string

Send the characters in the given string as keystrokes to the element.

method size

Return the element's size in pixels as a Tcl list of format {width height}.

method submit

Submit a form element. This command may also be applied to any element that is a descendant of a form element.

method tag_name

Returns the HTML tag name of the element.

method text

Return the text of the element without any markup. The result of this command is a string holding the content of all text nodes that are descendants of the element.

constructor ?-domain name? ?-expiry timestamp? ?-http_only bool? ?-path name? ?-secure bool? name value

Typically, it is not necessary to construct a Cookie manually. Most of the time, you will just retrieve cookies via a WebDriver::Window object, or you will set cookies using the Window class' set_cookie convenience method.

method domain

Return the cookie domain.

method expiry

Return the expiration date as a timestamp since Jan 1, 1970 UTC.

method http_only

Check whether the cookie is marked as being for HTTP only.

method name

Return the name of the cookie.

method path

Return the path of the cookie.

method secure

Determine whether the cookie is a secure cookie.

method value

Retrieve the cookie's value.

method set_domain string

Set the cookie domain.

method set_expiry timestamp

Set the expiration date of the cookie, where timestamp is the number of seconds since Jan 1, 1970 UTC.

method set_http_only bool

Set whether this cookie is for HTTP only.

method set_name string

Set the cookie's name.

method set_path string

Set the path of the cookie.

method set_secure bool

Set whether this is a secure cookie,

method set_value string

Set the cookie's value.

itcl::class WebDriver::Capabilities

constructor ?-browser_name string? ?-version string? ?-platform string? ?-javascript_enabled bool? ?-takes_screenshot bool? ?-handles_alerts bool? ?-database_enabled bool? ?-location_context_enabled bool? ?-application_cache_enabled bool? ?-browser_connection_enabled bool? ?-css_selectors_enabled bool? ?-web_storage_enabled bool? ?-rotatable bool? ?-accept_ssl_certs bool? ?-native_events bool? ?-proxy proxy_obj?

Capabilities are used to request session properties during initialization of a WebDriver::Session.

method accept_ssl_certs

Query whether the session accepts all SSL certs by default.

method application_cache_enabled

Query whether the session can interact with the application cache.

method browser_connection_enabled

Determine whether the session can query the browser's connectivity and disable it if desired.

method browser_name

Return the name of the browser being used.

method css_selectors_enabled

Query whether the session supports CSS selectors when searching for elements.

method database_enabled

Query whether the session can interact with database storage.

method handles_alerts

Query whether the session can interact with modal popups, such as window.alert and window.confirm.

method javascript_enabled

Query whether the session supports executing user supplied JavaScript in the context of the current page.

method location_context_enabled

Query whether the session can set and query the browser's location context.

method native_events

Query whether the session is capable of generating native events when simulating user input.

method platform

Return a key specifying which platform the browser is running on.

method proxy

Returns a WebDriver::Proxy object that indicates the connection type.

method rotatable

Query whether the session can rotate the current page's layout between portrait and landscape orientations (only applies to mobile platforms).

method takes_screenshot

Query whether the session supports taking screenshots of the current page.

method version

The browser version, or the empty string if unknown.

method web_storage_enabled

Query whether the session supports interactions with storage objects.

method set_accept_ssl_certs bool

Set whether the session should accept all SSL certs by default.

method set_application_cache_enabled bool

Set whether the session should be able to interact with the application cache.

method set_browser_connection_enabled bool

Set whether the session should be allowed to query for the browser's connectivity and disable it if desired.

method set_browser_name string

Set the name of the browser to be used; should be one of {chrome|firefox|htmlunit|internet explorer|iphone}.

method set_css_selectors_enabled bool

Specify whether the session should support CSS selectors when searching for elements.

method set_database_enabled bool

Set whether the session should be able to interact with database storage.

method set_handles_alerts bool

Set whether the session should be able to interact with modal popups, such as window.alert and window.confirm.

method set_javascript_enabled bool

Set whether the session needs to support executing user supplied JavaScript in the context of a page.

method set_location_context_enabled bool

Set whether the session should be able to set and query the browser's location context.

method set_native_events bool

Set whether the session should generate native events when simulating user input.

method set_platform string

Specify which platform the tests should run on. This value should be one of {WINDOWS|XP|VISTA|MAC|LINUX|UNIX}. When requesting a new session, the client may specify ANY to indicate any available platform may be used.

method set_proxy proxy_object

Specify the connection type (only necessary, if not direct) via a WebDriver::Proxy object.

method set_rotatable bool

Set whether the session should be able to rotate the current page's layout between portrait and landscape orientations (only applies to some mobile platforms).

method set_takes_screenshot bool

Set whether the session should be able to take screenshots of the loaded pages.

method set_version string

Set the version string of the browser to use.

method set_web_storage_enabled bool

Specify whether the session should support interation with storage objects.

itcl::class WebDriver::RequiredCapabilities

The RequiredCapabilities class is identical to the Capabilities class with the sole difference being that RequiredCapabilities objects don't carry any default values.

itcl::class WebDriver::Proxy

constructor ?-ftp_proxy url? ?-http_proxy url? ?-proxy_type type? ?-proxy_autoconfig_url url? ?-ssl_proxy url?

The Proxy object is passed to the session constructor as part of the desired or required capabilities.

method ftp_proxy

Return the configured FTP proxy URL.

method http_proxy

Return the configured HTTP proxy URL.

method proxy_type

Return the proxy type, which is one of direct, manual, pac, autodetect or system.

method proxy_autoconfig_url

If proxy method is set to pac, this should return the autoconfiguration URL.

method ssl_proxy

Return the configured SSL proxy URL.

method set_ftp_proxy url

Set the FTP proxy URL.

method set_http_proxy url

Set the HTTP proxy URL.

method set_proxy_type type

Set the proxy type being used. Possible values are: a) direct - a direct connection - no proxy in use, b) manual - manual proxy settings configured, c) pac - proxy autoconfiguration from a URL, d) autodetect - proxy autodetection, probably with WPAD, e) system - Use system settings.

method set_proxy_autoconfig_url url

Set the proxy autoconfiguration URL in case proxy type is set to pac.

method set_ssl_proxy url

Set the SSL proxy URL.

ADDITIONAL HINTS

While the Session methods logging_enabled and set_logging_enabled deal with local logging functionality of the WebDriver package itself, the methods log_types and get_log are for retrieving logs from the server instead.

SEE ALSO

itcl(3), error(3caius)